The inflation spectrometer
By Neelkanth Mishra:
An idealised wave has a predictable pattern, with smooth, alternating up and down moves. The reason waves in the real world (like those in the sea or light waves from a remote galaxy) appear so complex is that there are multiple waves interfering with each other, creating apparently unpredictable patterns. A spectrometer helps disentangle this jumble of electromagnetic waves, say, to know the age of a galaxy.
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